Gynaecological Conditions & Treatments





In the Total Laparoscopic Hysterectomy a laparoscope is used to remove the entire uterus from the abdomen via small incisions. The ovaries may or may not be removed at the same time. Like other minimally invasive surgeries, this procedure is designed to cause less pain than abdominal hysterectomy with the added benefit of a shorter recovery period. The procedure requires general anaesthesia, and a hospital stay of 1 to 2 days. Recovery before returning to work is usually 3 to 4 weeks.

Pelvic Prolapse or Pelvic Organ Prolapse

Pelvic organ prolapse means that the uterus and/or the vagina have fallen down from its normal position in the pelvis. This prolapse is probably caused by injuries sustaining during childbirth, aging, a woman’s tissue composition, chronic coughing or heavy lifting.  In addition to sagging of the bladder into the vagina (cystocele), pelvic prolapse can result in bulging of the rectum into the vagina (rectocele), and/or bulging of the intestine into the top of the vagina (enterocele). An urethrocele or decreased support of the tube leading out of the bladder is commonly seen with a cystocele.  If you have not had a hysterectomy, the uterus (womb) may drop to varying degrees (uterine prolapse). Mild pelvic prolapse requires no treatment.

If treatment is necessary, it is best to treat all of the support problems simultaneously to get the best long-term results. Pelvic prolapse is caused by tears in a tissue called fascia. Fascia is a strong canvas-like tissue that supports the bladder, vagina, and rectum. It is also found in many other areas of the body.

Factors that increase the likelihood of pelvic prolapse involve:

– multiple pregnancy with vaginal delivery
– obesity
– chronic coughing (such as with smoking or chronic bronchitis)
– heavy lifting and frequent straining
– hormone imbalance

Lifestyle changes may reduce the risk of pelvic prolapse or decrease the symptoms.

Symptoms resulting from pelvic prolapse can include:

– sensation of heaviness in the vagina
– pelvic and low back pain
– difficulty in passing urine
– frequent urinary tract infections
– vaginal irritation
– difficulty having a bowel movement
– the feeling that something is coming out of the vagina
– painful sexual intercourse

If surgery is necessary for treatment of pelvic prolapse, several different procedures can be performed. The choice of procedure(s) depends on the specific problem(s), any associated problems, and the preference of your physician.

pelvic organ prolapse
PCOS (1)

Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS)

The ovaries are the organs that produce the eggs in the female reproductive system. Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a syndrome in which the ovaries are enlarged and have several fluid-filled sacs or cysts. These cysts may look like a string of pearls or a pearl necklace. A woman can develop one cyst or many cysts. Polycystic ovaries are usually 1.5 to 3 times larger than normal. Women with PCOS may experience a number of other symptoms as well. PCOS is a leading cause of infertility and is the most common reproductive syndrome in women of childbearing age.

Some of the other symptoms of PCOS include:

– infrequent menstrual periods, no menstrual periods, and/or irregular        bleeding
– infrequent or no ovulation
– increased serum levels of male hormones, such as testosterone
– inability to get pregnant within six to 12 months of unprotected sexual intercourse (infertility)
– pelvic pain that lasts longer than six months
– weight gain or obesity
– diabetes, over-production of insulin, and inefficient use of insulin in the body
– abnormal lipid levels (such as high or low cholesterol levels, and high triglycerides)
– high blood pressure (over 140/90)
– excess growth of hair on the face, chest, stomach, thumbs, or toes
– male-pattern baldness or thinning hair
– acne, oily skin, or dandruff
– patches of thickened and dark brown or black skin on the neck
– groin, underarms, or skin folds
– skin tags, or tiny excess flaps of skin in the armpits or neck area.

No one knows the exact cause of PCOS, but it is likely inherited. PCOS can negatively affect fertility since it can prevent ovulation. Some women with PCOS have menstrual periods, but do not ovulate.

Ovarian Cysts

Ovarian cysts are fluid-filled sacs that develop in the ovaries and are very common before the menopause. They are usually diagnosed by an ultrasound scan and sometimes also by blood tests. Most of the time, you have little or no discomfort, and the cysts are harmless. Most cysts go away without treatment within a few months.  But sometimes ovarian cysts can become twisted or burst open (rupture). This can cause serious symptoms. To protect your health, get regular pelvic exams and know the symptoms that can signal what might be a serious problem.  Large ovarian cyst can cause:

– pelvic pain that may come and go. You may feel a dull ache or a sharp    pain in the area below your belly button toward one side.
– fullness, pressure or heaviness in your belly (abdomen).
– bloating.

Ovary Cysts
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Pelvic Pain

Pelvic pain is a common problem among women. Its nature and intensity may fluctuate, and its cause is often unclear. In some cases, no disease is evident. Pelvic pain can be categorised as either acute, meaning the pain is sudden and severe, or chronic, meaning the pain either comes and goes or is constant, lasting for a period of months or longer. Pelvic pain that lasts longer than 6 months and shows no improvement with treatment is known as chronic pelvic pain. Pelvic pain may originate in genital or other organs in and around the pelvis, or it may be psychological. Pelvic pain should not just be dismissed. It should always be investigated to rule out disease.


Fibroids are a common type of noncancerous tumour that can grow in and on your uterus. Not all fibroids cause symptoms, but when they do, symptoms can include heavy menstrual bleeding, back pain, frequent urination and pain during sex. Small fibroids often don’t need treatment, but larger fibroids can be treated with surgery.  Your treatment plan will depend on a few factors, including:

– how many fibroids you have
– the size of your fibroids
– where your fibroids are located
– what symptoms you are experiencing
– your desire for pregnancy
– your desire for uterine preservation
– your future fertility goals